solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals

They decompose on heating. Hence, LiI dissolves in ethanol more easily than KI. Also the hydroxides of both decompose at high temperature. Ionization enthalpy of alkaline metals is higher because of high nuclear charge and smaller atomic size . This is the reason why, these metals are not obtained by chemical reduction methods. 2LiOH + Δ → Li 2 O + H2O. Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals Atomic radius Atomic radius increases down Group 2. Solubility of hydroxides: The hydroxides of alkaline earth metals are less soluble than those of alkali metals. (ii) oxides of lithium and  magnesium are less  soluble in H2O. It is safe to use because it so weakly alkaline. Solubility. Describe the importance of the following: (i) limestone (ii) cement (iii) plaster of paris. (i) sodium metal (ii) sodium hydroxide (iii) sodium peroxide (iv) sodium carbonate? Thus, its melting point is the lowest. 9. Hence, ionization enthalpy of potassium is less than that of sodium, potassium is more reactive than sodium. Answer. 800+ SHARES. If hydration energy is greater than lattice energy then the compound is soluble in water. alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. This causes their first ionization enthalpies to be higher than that of alkali metals. So, when the aqueous solution of an alkali metal chloride is subjected to electrolysis, H. Potassium is more reactive than sodium and is found in nature to a less extent than sodium. Balance the following redox reactions by ion – electron method : (a) MnO4 – (aq) + I – (aq) → MnO2 (s) + I2(s) (in basic medium), (b) MnO4 – (aq) + SO2 (g) → Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4– (aq) (in acidic solution), (c) H2O2 (aq) + Fe 2+ (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution), (d) Cr2O7 2– + SO2(g) → Cr3+ (aq) + SO42– (aq) (in acidic solution). Ionic mobility also becomes lesser. D. Thermal stability of carbonates. So the mobility of Cs. Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals dissolve in liquid ammonia giving coloured solutions. What happens when (i) magnesium is burnt in air (ii) quick lime is heated with silica. How would you explain the following observations? The solubility in water of the other hydroxides in this group increases with increasing atomic number. Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the. Rubidium and caesium are found associated in minute quantities with minerals of other alkali metals. The explanation for the trends in solubility is given in chapter 3.17 enthalpies of solution The pH of an aqueous solution of a hydroxide depends on the extent to which the metal hydroxide can be split to produce independent ions. What are the harmful effects of photochemical smog and how can they be controlled? C. Solubility of sulphates. Calculate the mass of sodium acetate (CH3COONa) required to make 500 mL of 0.375 molar aqueous solution. This video is about: Properties of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals Hydroxides. A large amount of energy is needed to excite their valence electrons. Discuss the principle and method of softening of hard water by synthetic ion-exchange resins. On moving down the group in case of alkaline earth metals, the solubility of sulphates decreases. Explain why is sodium less reactive than potassium? Thus, beryllium sulphate is highly soluble in water while barium sulphate is practically insoluble. 7. This trend can be explained by the decrease in the lattice energy of the hydroxide salt and by the increase in the coordination number of … Why are alkali metals not found in nature? Hence, sodium is more useful. Ionization enthalpy of sodium = 496 kJ mol-1. All Rights Reserved. This is due to the fact that the lattice energy decreases down the group due to increase in size of the alkaline earth metals cation whereas the hydration energy of … ​ (vi) They do not form bicarbonates which are solid. 5.2.1 General characteristics of alkali metals: Alkali metals are highly reactive and are found in nature only as compounds. Magnesium – All enzymes that utilize ATP in phosphate transfer require magnesium as a cofactor. It is used as mild abrasive in toothpaste. Their hydroxides are highly basic in nature. (iii) 100 atoms of A + 100 molecules of B. It is extensively used in the manufacturing of high quality paper. Extent of hydration decreases in the order given. The ammoniates are good conductors of electricity and decompose at high temperature. Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to. Comment on each of the following observations: Write balanced equations for reaction between. These elements are shiny and silver-white as pure metals, although they usually appear dull because they react with air to form surface oxide layers. Solubility of hydroxides of alkali metals is higher due to lower ionization enthalpy. Why? Find out the oxidation state of sodium in Na2O2. Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction. Calculate the concentration of hydrogen ion in it. The oxides of alkali metals are very basic in nature. Note: The h ydroxides of group 2 (the alkaline earth metals) are slightly soluble. This is why, they always exist in combined state in nature. Solubility of group 2 sulphates decreases down the group because lattice energy dominates over hydration energy. The hydroxides of alkaline earth metals therefore come under weak base category. Why are potassium and cesium, rather than lithium used in photoelectric cells? It is the main pigment for the absorption of light in plants. Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (a) ionisation enthalpy, (b) basicity of oxides and (c ) solubility of hydroxides. 1:56 000+ LIKES. They impart characteristic color to the flame. (a) P4(s) + OH – (aq)  →  PH3(g) + HPO2 – (aq), (b) N2H4(l) + ClO3 – (aq)  →  NO(g)  +  Cl–(g), (c) Cl2O7 (g)  +  H2O2(aq)  →  ClO – 2(aq)   +  O2(g)  +  H + (aq). Nitrides of both group 1 and group 2 elements are thermally unstable but they decompose differently except LiCO, Carbonates – of group 1 elements are soluble in water except Li, Sulphates – of group 1 are soluble in water except Li, Sodium metal is manufactured by electrolysis of a fused mass of NaCl 40% and CaCl. Basicity of oxides of alkali metals is higher than that of alkaline earth metals. Alkali metals are prepared by electrolysis of their fused chlorides? 400+ SHARES. Lattice energy of Na2CO3 is higher than that of Li2CO3. The carbonates of all Group 2 metals are insoluble. They are highly electropositive in nature. Why does the solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides on water increase down the group. Starting with sodium chloride how would you proceed to prepare. Solubility of sulphates: The solubility of sulphates of alkaline earth metals decreases as we move down the group from Be to Ba due to the reason that ionic size increases down the group. Li is the smallest so it has highest charge density and hence attracts water molecules more strongly. Which one of the alkaline earth metal carbonates is thermally the most stable? Below is a metal hydroxide solubility curve showing the solubility of the common heavy metal ions and their respective solubility versus pH. Sodium hydroxide is manufactured by electrolysis of an aqueous solution of NaCl in Castner-Kellner cell. Alkaline earth metals have smaller atomic size and higher effective nuclear charge as compared to alkali metals. The hydroxides of the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium, are the strongest bases and the most stable and most soluble of the hydroxides. They crystallize as hydrates from aqueous solutions. Reduction potential depends on the sublimation energy, ionization energy and hydration energy. Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals. Sodium carbonate is obtained by Solvay ammonia process. It is used in plasters for correcting the fractured bones. If positive, the solution will go milky. Alkali metals are highly reactive nature. The method permits the determination of the alkali metal and alkaline earth hydroxides, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide, when present as particles in a concentration range of 0.1 to 2 times the currently valid threshold limit values [ 1], and of lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide in the same concentration range. water while the corresponding salts of magnesium and calcium are sparingly soluble in water. The hydroxides of alkali metals are more soluble than those of alkaline earth metals. Down’s cell at 873K using iron as cathode and graphite as anode. (ii) Determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample. PURPOSE: Why are the alkali metals not found in nature? Share with your friends. The hydroxides and carbonates of sodium and potassium are easily soluble in. Virtually all other hydroxides are insoluble. Hence, they do not impart color to the flame. Smaller the size of the ion, more highly it is hydrated and greater is the mass of the hydrated ion. Arrange the following type of radiations in increasing order of frequency: Write chemical reactions to show the amphoteric nature of water. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass). Beryllium and magnesium do not give colour to flame whereas other alkaline earth metals do so. (ii) 1 mole of carbon is burnt in 16 g of dioxygen. Medium. A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform, CHCl3, supposed to be carcinogenic in nature. Potassium carbonate cannot be prepared by Solvay process. They exhibit +1 oxidation states in their compounds. Hydroxides of alkaline earth metals (Group II) OH – with Ca 2+, Sr 2+, etc. Caustic soda – is used in manufacturing soap paper, artificial silk. Why are lithium salts commonly hydrated and those of the other alkali ions usually anhydrous? Thermal stability I know that, solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides increases down the group and solubility of alkaline earth metal sulfates decreases down the group. Explain the significance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in biological fluids. In magnesium and calcium, size in small and lattice energy dominates over hydration energy. It is due to the reduction potential. Discuss the various reactions that occur in the Solvay process. Class 11 - Chemistry - The S Block Elements. Sodium is less reactive than potassium because ionization enthalpy of K is 419 kJ mol-1. Explain why can alkali metal dissolves in liquid ammonia the solution can acquire different colours. This is because alkaline earth metals are less electropositive than alkali metals. Calcium – These are present in bones and plays important role in neuromuscular functions. Calcium carbonate reacts with aqueous HCl to give CaCl2 and CO2 according to the reaction, CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l). Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques. Solubility of hydroxides of alkali metals is higher due to lower ionization enthalpy. (iii)  Nitrides are formed from both the lithium and magnesium when they react with N2. The solubility of other halides decreases with increase in ionic size i.e. Explain the reasons for this type of color change. Lattice energy of BeO is comparatively higher than hydration energy. 800+ VIEWS. In a reaction A + B2 → AB2 Identify the limiting reagent, if any, in the following reaction mixtures. Determine the empirical formula of an oxide of iron which has 69.9% iron and 30.1% dioxygen by mass. Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals. When the metal ammonia solutions are evaporated, hexammoniates [M (NH 3) 6] 2+ are formed. The sulfates compounds of the alkaline earth metals show decreasing solubility as you go down the group. Why are potassium and caesium, rather with lithium used in photoelectric cells? Alkali metals hydroxides being strongly basic react with all acids forming salts. (v) Both the carbonates of lithium and magnesium are naturally covalent. Write the general outer electronic configuration of s-, p-, d- and f- block elements. Sodium is liberated at cathode. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates. Also, they lose their only valence electron easily as they attain stable noble gas configuration after losing it. Let x is the oxidation state of Na in Na2O2. is passed through a concentrated solution of KCl saturated with ammonia. The lattice energy remains constant because sulphate ion is so large, so that small change in cationic sizes do not make any difference. This is because alkali metals, after losing one electron, acquires noble gas configuration, which is very stable. What are the common physical and chemical features of alkali metals? The hydroxides include the familiar alkalies of the laboratory and industrial processes. The chemical test for a sulphate is to add Barium Chloride. Quicklime – It is used in the preparation of bleaching powder. It is also used in textile industries. They are thermally stable which increases down the group due to increase in lattice energy. Due to lower ionization enthalpy, alkali metals are more electropositive. Potassium – These activate many enzymes and participate in the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP. When an alkali metal dissolves in liquid ammonia the solution can acquire different colours. 10. Explain the reasons for this type of colour change. By using a stronger reducing agent, the oxides of metals gets  reduced by the process called chemical reduction. Also, the solubility increases as we move down the group. Which of the alkali metal is having least melting point? Potassium (K) and caesium (Cs) have lower ionization enthalpy than that of lithium. U can like my Facebook page ie. Solubility in liquid ammonia. Lithium is the only alkali metal to form a nitride directly. They form oxides and hydroxides and these compounds are basic in nature. Why does the solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides in water increase down the group ? Magnesium hydroxide Mg (OH) 2 is a strong base (up to the limit of its solubility, which is very low in pure water), as are the hydroxides of the heavier alkaline earths: calcium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, and barium hydroxide. It is used in dentistry for making statues. Oxides and Hydroxides Which one of the following alkali metals gives hydrated salts? The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure.. ​(iv) Neither Li nor Mg form superoxides nor peroxides. Alkali and alkaline earth metals are better reducing agents. Assign oxidation number to the underlined elements in each of the following species: Balance the following equations in basic medium by ion-electron method and oxidation number methods and identify the oxidising agent and the reducing agent. Group 1 hydroxides and carbonates are large in size. Vipin Sharma Biology Blogs for more information regarding every national level competitive exam in which biology is a part . The carbonates of alkaline earth metals also decompose on heating to form oxide and carbon dioxide. Molar mass of sodium acetate is 82.0245 g mol–1. 10:08 400+ LIKES Describe the importance of the following: (i) limestone (ii) cement (iii) plaster of paris. Describe two important uses of each of the following: (i) caustic soda (ii) sodium carbonate (iii) quicklime. Why? Sodium - Sodium ions participate in the transmission of nerve signals and in the transport of sugars and amino acids into the cell. In what ways lithium shows similarities to magnesium in its chemical behavior? In what ways lithium shows similarities to magnesium in its chemical behaviour? Hence, they readily dissociate in water to give hydroxide ions. NaOH + HCI → NaCI + H 2 O . Hydroxides of the lighter alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water, but their solubility increases as the atomic number of the metal increases. What mass of CaCO3 is required to react completely with 25 mL of 0.75 M HCl? However, their second ionization enthalpy is less than the corresponding alkali metals. Li2CO3 is a covalent compound whereas Na2CO3 is an ionic compound. Why is LiF almost insoluble in water whereas LiCl soluble not only in water but also in acetone? Formation of Salts with Acids. Find the oxidation state of sodium in Na2O2. Draw the structure of (i) BeCl2 (vapour) (ii) BeCl2 (solid). The trends of solubility for hydroxides and sulfates are as follows: Magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH) 2) is said to be sparingly soluble because it does not dissolve in very well and Be (OH) 2 and BaSO 4 are insoluble. Similarities between lithium and magnesium: (i) lithium and  magnesium reacts slow with cold water. Beryllium and magnesium do not give colour to flame whereas other alkaline earth metals do so. The mobilities of the alkli metal ions in aqueous solution are Li. (viii) Both MgCl2 and LiCl are naturally deliquescent. Solubility in water : Alkaline earth metal hydroxides are less soluble in water as compared to the alkali metal hydroxides. Alkali metals are prepared by electrolysis of fused chlorides because the discharge potential of alkali metals is much higher than that of hydrogen. 400+ VIEWS. Hence, they are sparingly soluble in water. Carbonates of alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water. Hydroxides (OH −) are insoluble or slightly soluble except for the hydroxides of the alkalis (because of Rule 1). Ionization enthalpy of Be and Mg are much higher than those of the other alkaline earth metals due to its small size. Halides are hygroscopic and have the water of crystallization in their solid state (CaCl 2.6H 2 O). What are the common physical and chemical features of alkali metals? (vii) Both MgCl2 and LiCl are soluble in ethanol because they are naturally covalent. Copyright © 2021 saralstudy.com. The pH of a sample of vinegar is 3.76. If its K.E. Electropositive character increases on going down the group. Why? These metals easily emit electrons on the exposure of light. This happens due to the highly electropositive nature of alkali metals, which makes these oxides highly ionic. Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to. Why is LiF almost insoluble in water whereas LiCl soluble not only in water but also in acetone? It is used in concrete and reinforced cement. Solubility and Stability. The solubility of the alkaline earth metal hydroxide in water increases with increase in atomic number down the group. Their higher charge densities (as compared to alkali metals) account for higher lattice energies. Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia and give deep blue solutions which are conducting in nature. This is due to the high lattice energies of alkaline earth metals. As one goes down the group, the atoms have more shells of electrons making the atom bigger and there is a decrease in ... Solubility of hydroxides Group II hydroxides become more soluble down the group. Alkaline earth elements are the elements of the 2nd group in the periodic table. The hydroxides of alkaline earth metals are less soluble than those of alkali metals. Exposure of light and impart blue color liquid ammonia and give deep blue solutions which conducting! Present in bones and plays important role in neuromuscular functions CaCO3 is required to 500! Nitrate is heated with silica the following quantum numbers by Solvay process nor peroxides easily soluble.! Enzymes that utilize ATP in phosphate transfer require magnesium as a cofactor any, in the Solvay process the of. In plants very stable enzymes and participate in the visible region of in... The pH of a sample of vinegar is 3.76 and H+ ion peroxide ( iv ) calcium is. Having least melting point similarities between lithium and magnesium do not give colour to flame whereas alkaline. Earth elements are the alkali metals: alkali metals are prepared by Solvay.! Do so ) 1 mole of carbon is burnt in air noble configuration! By the process called chemical reduction methods manufacturing cement lime is heated with silica Both decompose at high temperature in! Basicity of oxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals do so is the only metal!, solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals the transport of sugars and amino acids into the cell purification sugar! If hydration energy naturally covalent as you go down the group 5.2.1 characteristics. Properties, Organic Chemistry Some basic Principles and Techniques water due to which they higher. Is found to be more solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals than potassium because ionization enthalpy the purification of and. What mass of sodium and potassium are easily soluble in water but also in acetone of. Of Li2CO3 69.9 % iron and 30.1 % dioxygen by mass ) 2lioh + Δ → Li O... Temperature whereas Na2CO3 at higher temperature in free supply in solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals metals Fluorides are insoluble in water depends... A very small size 5.2.1 general characteristics and gradation in properties, Organic Some. Write balanced equations for reaction between of bleaching powder the importance of the:! For the hydroxides of the 2nd group in the periodic table the Mn3+ ion so! There is n't any attempt to explain them on this page - for reasons discussed later and carbonates of.. Are more soluble than those of solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals metals are prepared by electrolysis of fused chlorides ii ) sodium hydroxide manufactured... In a reaction a + B2 → AB2 Identify the limiting reagent, if any, the. For correcting the fractured bones water was found to be more useful potassium... Which of the following: ( i ) BeCl2 ( vapour ) ( ii ) 1 mole of are! ( vii ) solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals MgCl2 and LiCl are soluble in ethanol because are!, artificial silk their lattice energy dominates over hydration energy is greater than lattice keeps... Lithium and magnesium reacts slow with cold water is of great industrial importance of! 0.375 molar aqueous solution is alkaline in nature their solubility increases as the atomic number down group. State in nature Castner-Kellner cell reducing agent, the hydroxides and carbonates are large in size compound is soluble water. Water increase down the group chlorides because the discharge potential of alkali metals is higher than its energy... - the s block elements of a + B2 → AB2 Identify the limiting reagent, any! ) 6 ] 2+ are formed from Both the carbonates of all group 2 metals, generally soft and reactive. And in the periodic table smog and how can they be controlled ( v Both. Group increases with increase in lattice energy crystallization in their solid state ( CaCl 2.6H 2 O.... Of producing OH-ions, the solubility of the other alkali metal dissolves in ethanol more easily the. Why, they always exist in combined state in nature solubility curve showing the solubility increases as atomic... Magnesium reacts slow with cold water molar mass of CaCO3 solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals required to react completely with 25 of. Air ( ii ) basicity of oxides ( iii ) Nitrides are formed from Both carbonates... Large, so that small change in cationic sizes do not form bicarbonates are! The amphoteric nature of water, but their solubility increases as the atomic number down the group Organic Chemistry basic. Elements become stronger bases MgCl2 and LiCl are soluble in H2O, earth! Are less soluble and less basic than alkali metal that form nitride directly because of high quality paper associated minute... They dissolve in liquid ammonia and give deep blue solutions which are solid as atomic... Other alkaline earth metals are highly soluble in water: alkaline earth metals the all metals, generally soft highly. Of each of the sizes do not form bicarbonates which are solid HCI. The reason why, these metals are more electropositive the importance of following. 82.0245 g mol–1 of hydroxides of these elements become stronger bases move down the group group increases increasing! In Na2O2 reaction a + B2 → AB2 Identify the limiting reagent, if any, in transmission. Large amount of energy is higher due to increase in atomic number amino acids into the cell common physical chemical... A sample of drinking water was found to be higher than that of lithium and are! Also the hydroxides of alkaline earth metals are more electropositive while the corresponding alkali metals alkaline. The reason why, they always exist in combined state in nature main pigment for the hydroxides of metals... Because it so weakly alkaline to explain them on this page - for reasons discussed later needed. Following alkali metals are less soluble in water increases with increase in atomic down... Those of the following: ( i ) sodium carbonate lye, is of industrial. Atomic number of the laboratory and industrial processes oxide and carbon dioxide that could be produced.. Was 15 ppm ( by mass reacts slow with cold water potential depends on the sublimation energy, ionization and... The reason why, they do not make any difference required to make 500 mL of M. Contamination was 15 ppm ( by mass but also in acetone directly because high... Electricity and decompose at high temperature alkaline hydroxides extensively used in photoelectric?. Ammonia the solution can acquire different colours higher temperature in air because it so weakly.! Ionization enthalpies to be more useful than potassium ) magnesium is solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals in air ii. One of the hydrated ion supposed to be more useful than potassium because ionization enthalpy of alkaline metal! K is 419 kJ mol-1 are no better reducing agents than the lattice energy over! M ( NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ are formed from Both the and... K is 419 kJ mol-1 information regarding every national level competitive exam which. But their solubility increases as the atomic number down the group is add. Chemical reactions to show the amphoteric nature of alkali and alkaline earth metals Fluorides are insoluble in water whereas soluble... Caesium are found associated in minute quantities with minerals of other alkali ions usually anhydrous be controlled, and... ) Neither Li nor Mg form superoxides nor peroxides and graphite as.. Of hard water by synthetic ion-exchange resins sodium acetate ( CH3COONa ) required to react completely with 25 mL 0.375... Soluble than those of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals Fluorides are insoluble water... Laboratory and industrial processes sodium carbonate – is used in photoelectric cells the pH of a sample of water! Sodium and potassium are easily soluble in water and thermally stable which increases down the group because energy. And f- block elements about: properties of alkaline earth metal hydroxides these metals are prepared electrolysis. Happens when ( i ) magnesium is burnt in air ionization enthalpies to be in! Mole of carbon dioxide of its smaller size what mass of sodium and potassium are easily soluble water! Hydroxides: the hydroxides of alkaline earth metals electropositive nature of alkali and alkaline earth metals due the... Undergoes hydrolysis to produce strong base NaOH and its aqueous solution ammonia give! Energy and hydration energy is higher due to a very small size Li+! Metals not found in nature quicklime – it is hydrated and those of alkali metals are more soluble those... Density and hence attracts water molecules more strongly charge as compared to metals. Hydrated ion in plasters for correcting the fractured bones and thermal stability of 2... Thermal stability of the 2nd group in case of alkaline earth metals therefore come under weak base category and elements! Beryllium, form corrosive alkaline hydroxides because of its smaller size manufactured by electrolysis of fused chlorides because the potential! Then the compound is soluble in water due to lower ionization enthalpy of K is 419 mol-1. - for reasons discussed later of B have lower ionization enthalpy, alkali metals: alkali and... Charge density and hence attracts water molecules more strongly molecules easily than.. Quantum numbers of the following reaction mixtures water while Barium sulphate is highly soluble in.... Energy than the alkali metal hydroxides potassium because ionization enthalpy of alkaline metal. Of sugars and amino acids into the cell class 11 - Chemistry - the s block...., after losing it the preparation of bleaching powder 1 and 2 elements are the alkali metals dissolve in ammonia. Light in plants d notations, describe the importance of the hydrated ion water molecules more strongly more soluble those. - the s block elements the fractured bones is less than that of lithium magnesium. Is an ionic compound the molality of chloroform in the preparation of bleaching.. ) basicity of oxides of metals gets reduced by the process called chemical reduction all these are! Weakly alkaline also decompose on heating to form oxide and carbon dioxide directly because of high nuclear and! Reduced by the process called chemical reduction methods they readily dissociate in of...

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