what is profiling

This type of police profiling is … Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Profiling definition is - the act or process of extrapolating information about a person based on known traits or tendencies; specifically : the act of suspecting or targeting a person on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior. Profilers, which are also programs themselves, analyze target programs by collecting information on their execution. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. Long story short version: Profiling is the bread and butter of delivering more targeted, relevant marketing that consumers value. First on the to-do list, the profiling exercises to help the Western masses understand the nature of the wretched beast. Are there anomalous patterns in your data? 4. In software engineering, profiling ("program profiling", "software profiling") is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. They can show the relative amount of time spent in user mode versus interruptible kernel mode such as system call processing. Noun 1. profiling - recording a person's behavior and analyzing psychological characteristics in order to predict or assess their ability in a certain sphere or to identify a particular group of people identification - evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing Profiling is achieved by instrumenting either the program source code or its binary executable form using a tool called a profiler (or code profiler). We’ve gathered some interesting words donated to English from Portuguese … as well as some that just don’t translate at all. Input-sensitive profilers[11][12][13] add a further dimension to flat or call-graph profilers by relating performance measures to features of the input workloads, such as input size or input values. Data profiling verifies that data columns are populated with the types of data you expect. T. Kustner, J. Weidendorfer, and T. Weinzierl, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "How to find the performance bottleneck in C# desktop application? This is the use of algorithms or other mathematical techniques that allow the discovery of patterns or correlations in large quantities of data, aggregated in databases. Basic profiling -- identifying the perpetrator of a crime based on an analysis of crime and the way it was committed -- is a common investigative tool. What are the maximum, minimum, and average values for given data? The purpose is to predict the individual’s behaviour and take decisions regarding it. E. Coppa, C. Demetrescu, and I. Finocchi. ", "What is code profiling? A stack snapshot is a trace of the stack of a thread at an instant in time. Which of the following animal names traces its immediate origin to Portuguese? Based on their data granularity, on how profilers collect information, they are classified into event based or statistical profilers. Profiling is the practice of attempting to understand a person or group based on general characteristics or on past behaviors. Profiling definition, the use of personal characteristics or behavior patterns to make generalizations about a person, as in gender profiling. Note that instrumenting a program can cause performance changes, and may in some cases lead to inaccurate results and/or heisenbugs. Profilers use a wide variety of techniques to collect data, including hardware interrupts, code instrumentation, instruction set simulation, operating system hooks, and performance counters. For the official GDPR definition of “profiling”, please see Article 4.4 of the GDPR. When these patterns or correlations are used to identify or represent people, they can be called profiles. Stack Snapshot. See molecular profiling . Basic block profilers report a number of machine clock cycles devoted to executing each line of code, or a timing based on adding these together; the timings reported per basic block may not reflect a difference between cache hits and misses.[14][15]. Criminal Profiling The investigation of a crime with the hope of identifying the responsible party, based on crime scene analysis, investigative psychology, and behavourial evidence analysis Segen's Medical Dictionary. Computer architects need such tools to evaluate how well programs will perform on new architectures. Profiling happens in law enforcement. Most commonly, profiling information serves to aid program optimization. In 1994, Amitabh Srivastava and Alan Eustace of Digital Equipment Corporation published a paper describing ATOM[9](Analysis Tools with OM). [1] A profiler can be used to understand code from a timing point of view, with the objective of optimizing it to handle various runtime conditions[2] or various loads. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? S.L. They generate charts that characterize how an application's performance scales as a function of its input. [19] Those profilers also support native code profiling, along with Apple Inc.'s Shark (OSX),[20] OProfile (Linux),[21] Intel VTune and Parallel Amplifier (part of Intel Parallel Studio), and Oracle Performance Analyzer,[22] among others. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Some commonly used[17] statistical profilers for Java/managed code are SmartBear Software's AQtime[18] and Microsoft's CLR Profiler. In fact, if a value is n times the sampling period, the expected error in it is the square-root of n sampling periods." In this article we will describe what it is, what it isn’t and how you can use it in your business or your life. The process yields a high-level overview which aids in the discovery of data qualityissues, risks, and overall trends. In 1982 gprof extended the concept to a complete call graph analysis.[8]. Real-world profilers have to be careful, and are, not to indulge in facile ethnic, racial or religious “profiling.”. Most commonly, profiling information serves to aid program optimization. Cookie profiling, also called web profiling, is the use of persistent or permanent cookies to track a user’s overall activity online. People are worried about profiling people for the color of their skin. Is the data unique? A sampling profiler probes the target program's call stack at regular intervals using operating system interrupts. Profiling is defined by more than just the collection of personal data; it is the use of that data to evaluate certain aspects related to the individual. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. What is Profiling? [16]. How many distinct values are there? [23] For example, adding code to count every procedure/routine call will probably have less effect than counting how many times each statement is obeyed. Profiling is necessary to determine whether or not reasonable suspicion or probable cause exists. In early 1974 instruction-set simulators permitted full trace and other performance-monitoring features. Are these the ranges you expect? Profiling refers to the law enforcement practice of the detention, interdiction, or other disparate treatment of an individual on the basis of the racial or ethnic status of such individual. Dedicated hardware can go beyond this: ARM Cortex-M3 and some recent MIPS processors JTAG interface have a PCSAMPLE register, which samples the program counter in a truly undetectable manner, allowing non-intrusive collection of a flat profile. Profilers are used in the performance engineering process. Again, profiling, in and of itself is appropriate. Agencies (acting as Data Processors) and their Customers (acting as Data Controllers) need to ensure that all profiling undertaken has met the core GDPR requirements (stated below in the detailed version). Data profiling allows you to answer the following questions about your data: 1. McKusick. This definition of racial profiling is used in context and coupled with examples to help clarify. Deterministic profiling implies higher accuracy and higher overhead. Program analysis tools are extremely important for understanding program behavior. Profilers may use a number of different techniques, such as event-based, statistical, instrumented, and simulation methods. Data profiling is the process for assessing the quality and structure of data sources so you have a complete, 100-percent-accurate picture of your data. Other than a discussion of profiling technologies or population profiling, th Still, kernel code to handle the interrupts entails a minor loss of CPU cycles, diverted cache usage, and is unable to distinguish the various tasks occurring in uninterruptible kernel code (microsecond-range activity). The programming languages listed here have event-based profilers: Some profilers operate by sampling. But it can go wrong. Is the data complete? In short, Criminal profiling (also known as offender profiling and specific profile analysis) is to create a psychological and not only psychological portrait, determine location of the offenders by gathering their personal attributes from crime scene behavior in order to assist in detection of them. Sharpen your thoughts on racial profiling … Is the data duplicated? In information science, profiling refers to the process of construction and application of user profiles generated by computerized data analysis. Graham, P.B. In software engineering, profiling ("program profiling", "software profiling") is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. https://panoply.io/analytics-stack-guide/data-profiling-best-practices Instrumentation is key to determining the level of control and amount of time resolution available to the profilers. 5. Kessler, and M.K. However, if you’re looking for paternity testing services or genetic art, you’d need to buy a DNA test specifically for this purpose, you wouldn’t be able to interpret your own profile to these ends! [5] Profilers are built into some application performance management systems that aggregate profiling data to provide insight into transaction workloads in distributed applications. Also since they don't affect the execution speed as much, they can detect issues that would otherwise be hidden. This technique - modifying a program to analyze itself - is known as "instrumentation". [citation needed] This was an early example of sampling (see below). Are there blank or null values? Learn the 3 Types of Code Profilers", "Getting Started with Profile Guided Optimization", "Matching Wildcards: An Improved Algorithm for Big Data", "List of .Net Profilers: 3 Different Types and Why You Need All of Them", 20 Years of PLDI (1979–1999): A Selection, "Timing and Profiling - Basic Block Profilers", "Optimally profiling and tracing programs", "Evaluate performance for Linux on Power", Need for speed — Eliminating performance bottlenecks, Profiling Runtime Generated and Interpreted Code using the VTune Performance Analyzer, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Profiling_(computer_programming)&oldid=990186127, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Pages incorrectly using the quote template, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 08:21. The Malaysians now say that nothing significant has been turned up from this profiling. What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? That inserted code outputs analysis data. Software writers need tools to analyze their programs and identify critical sections of code. Data profiling is a technique used to examine data for different purposes like determining accuracy and completeness. [3] Profiling results can be ingested by a compiler that provides profile-guided optimization. Flat profilers compute the average call times, from the calls, and do not break down the call times based on the callee or the context. Do you know what they mean? Data profiling is also referred to as data discovery. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, the use of personal characteristics or behavior patterns to make generalizations about a person, as in, the use of these characteristics to determine whether a person may be engaged in illegal activity, as in, the practice of categorizing people and predicting their behaviour according to particular characteristics such as race or age, MH370’s Black Boxes Are Dead but the Investigation Is Very Much Alive. Profilers interrupt program execution to collect information, which may result in a limited resolution in the time measurements, which should be taken with a grain of salt. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. Data profiling produces critical insights into data that companies can then leverage to their advantage. What range of values exist, and are they expected? process of linking an offender’s actions at the crime scene to their most likely characteristics to help police investigators narrow down and prioritize a pool of most likely suspects “Capital” vs. “Capitol”: Do You Know Where You’re Going? The resulting data are not exact, but a statistical approximation. This technique effectively adds instructions to the target program to collect the required information. This knowledge is then used to improve data quality as an important part of monitoring and improving the health of these newer, bigger data sets. The profiling API provides two ways to obtain call stacks: a stack snapshot method, which enables sparse gathering of call stacks, and a shadow stack method, which tracks the call stack at every instant. the activity of collecting important and useful details about someone or something: We have been asked to investigate consumer profiling by online ad firms. See DNA profiling . 2. This process examines a data source such as a database to uncover the erroneous areas in data organization. [4] Profiling results can be used to guide the design and optimization of an individual algorithm; the Krauss matching wildcards algorithm is an example. Profiling is the first step to optimize your code. Profiling, as defined in the GDPR, is automated processing of personal data which consists of using this personal data to evaluate certain aspects of the person (data subject) in question, and analyse or predict his/her interests, behaviour, and other attributes. Compiler writers often use such tools to find out how well their instruction scheduling or branch prediction algorithm is performing... A profiler can be applied to an individual method or at the scale of a module or program, to identify performance bottlenecks by making long-running code obvious. What is the distribution of patterns in your data? Also known as DNA or genetic typing, DNA profiling is simply the collection, processing and analysis of VNTRs-- unique sequences on the loci (area on a chromosome).VNTR stands for variable number tandem repeats -- meaning that th­e tandem repeats, or pairs of nucleotides, vary in number. Offender profiling, for example, is a method used during a criminal investigation that allows law enforcement to identify a likely suspect through offender profiling. [citation needed], Profiler-driven program analysis on Unix dates back to 1973,[7] when Unix systems included a basic tool, prof, which listed each function and how much of program execution time it used. An example of profiling is a situation where a person is pulled aside for extra … ­In any situation where DNA may be used, a DNA profile must be created. Answ… "The actual amount of error is usually more than one sampling period. A few computers have special hardware to collect information; in this case the impact on the program is minimal. 2. 3. Data profiling is the process of examining, analyzing, and creating useful summaries of data. What Is “Stochastic Terrorism,” And Why Is It Trending? In practice, sampling profilers can often provide a more accurate picture of the target program's execution than other approaches, as they are not as intrusive to the target program, and thus don't have as many side effects (such as on memory caches or instruction decoding pipelines). Sometimes referred to as psychometric testing or psychological profiling – is a means of measuring an individual’s personality in a particular situation. Call graph profilers[8] show the call times, and frequencies of the functions, and also the call-chains involved based on the callee. In some tools full context is not preserved. Then, they can analyze patterns that could predict future victims or offenses. allows you to answer the following questions about your data: 1 Analytical algorithms detec… Are these the patterns you expect? An essential beginning to an investigation of this kind would be profiling of every passenger. More specifically, data profiling sifts through data in order to determine its legitimacy and quality. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. In 2004 both the gprof and ATOM papers appeared on the list of the 50 most influential PLDI papers for the 20-year period ending in 1999.[10]. Data profiling is an often-visual assessment that uses a toolbox of business rules and analytical algorithms to discover, understand and potentially expose inconsistencies in your data. The effect will depend on what information is being collected, on the level of timing details reported, and on whether basic block profiling is used in conjunction with instrumentation. Many communities have adopted laws to deal with this illegal practice, and some make racial profiling training available to their law enforcement agencies. This tracking does not just happen when you are on a particular site, but it occurs the whole time you are browsing. Stories about racial profiling constantly appear in the news, but that doesn’t mean the public has a good grasp on what this discriminatory practice is. The ATOM platform converts a program into its own profiler: at compile time, it inserts code into the program to be analyzed. Personality profiling has been in common use for over sixty years. profiling: (prō′fī′lĭng) n. 1. It is recommended to visualize graphically the function calls. See more. [6], Performance-analysis tools existed on IBM/360 and IBM/370 platforms from the early 1970s, usually based on timer interrupts which recorded the program status word (PSW) at set timer-intervals to detect "hot spots" in executing code. Definition of Profiling: The recording and analysis of a person's psychological and behavioral characteristics, so as to assess or predict their capabilities in a certain sphere or to assist in identifying a particular subgroup of people. Deployment of this technique improves data quality. DNA profiling is also used by DNA testing companies to offer a range of services, from paternity testing to genetic art. Dictionary.com Unabridged Sampling profiles are typically less numerically accurate and specific, but allow the target program to run at near full speed. They are also relatively immune to over-evaluating the cost of small, frequently called routines or 'tight' loops. What Does Amen Mean At The End Of A Prayer? Suspicion or probable cause exists have to be analyzed profiling definition, the use of characteristics. 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The first step to optimize your code, and are they expected racial profiling … data produces... Decisions regarding it and/or heisenbugs in and of itself is appropriate the profiling exercises help... Thoughts on racial profiling is the process yields a high-level overview which aids in the discovery of data,. Does Amen Mean at the End of a thread at an instant in time traces its origin... Speed as much, they can be ingested by a compiler that provides optimization... Charts that characterize how an application 's performance scales as a function of its.... Psychometric testing or psychological profiling – is a means of measuring an individual s. The official GDPR definition of “ profiling ”, please see Article 4.4 of stack... Serves to aid program optimization your code ’ s personality in a particular situation profilers have to analyzed... Specifically, data profiling is used in context and coupled with examples to help the masses. 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